Juvenile Justice Education and the School to Prison Pipeline
YOUTH, ARTS, INCARCERATION
From 2008 through 2012, throughout the state of Massachusetts, I had the honor of working with court-involved youth and their teachers. The youth reside and attend school in DYS (Depart of Youth Services) facilities throughout the term of their court-assignment. Through multi-arts education that we integrated into the core content ares of the DYS school day, the youth amplified their voices and expanded their vision of who they will become when they return to their families and communities. In addition to my role as an art educator of youth, I also engaged in professional development work with teachers, with whom I focused on integrating arts in curriculum as positive youth development, and culturally relevant critical pedagogy.
UNLOCKING THE LIGHT http://collaborative.org/partnerships/utl
The innovative arts-integration project in DYS schools was launched by Derek Fenner who founded "Unlocking the Light" with a Federal Department of Education grant. Through Unlocking the Light, I worked directly with teachers to expand critical arts pedagogies and collaborated with youth on art-making practices.
PUBLICATION & VIDEO
I collaborated with a former graduate student, Basil El-Halwagy, artists and art educator, and Derek Fenner, artist, writer, publisher, performer, and juvenile justice educator in a month-long artists' residency in a DYS residential facility in Boston, in 2009.
VIDEO: The youth collaborated with Derek Fenner and ELA teacher, Evan Gentler to produce a 22 minute video about their reflections on their integrated arts education. Click here to see video.
AERA Roundtable: On April 29, 2013, at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in San Francisco, I collaborated with researcher-activists Christine E. Clark and Derek Fenner on a session Roundtable session: "Poverty and the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Disrupting, Dismantling and Excavating the Pipeline Process" This roundtable indicted the school-to-prison pipeline and asserted the role of the arts in lives of youth to help prevent involvement in the pipeline, and break free of entanglement with court system. These researchers provided structural analysis of successful arts integration models in juvenile-justice-schools. A case study of innovative curriculum was reviewed.
The power point by Christine E. Clark, and Derek Fenner can be viewed below.
OBVIOUS OUTRAGE: SCHOOL TO PRISON PIPELINE
This work has fueled my outrage about, and my dedication to dismantling, the school-to-prison pipeline. (See resources below).
References and resources on the topic of the School-to-Prison Pipeline
Au, W., & Bigelow, B. (2011/12, Winter). Stop the School to Prison Pipeline, Special Issue. Rethinking Schools, 26 (2).
Bode, P., Fenner D. & El Halwagy, B. (2013). The Arts and Juvenile Justice Education: Unlocking the Light through youth arts and teacher development. In M. S. Hanley, T. Barone & G. Noblit, (Eds.) Culturally relevant arts education for social justice: A way out of no way. New York: Routledge.
Brown, T.M. (2007). Lost and turned out: Academic, social and emotional experiences of students excluded from school. Urban Education, 42 (5), 432-455.
Children’s Defense Fund. (2008). America’s cradle to prison pipeline. Report. Second Edition. Washington DC: Children’s Defense Fund.
Clark, C. (2012). School-to-prison pipeline. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity in education: Volume 4 (pp. 1894-97). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Desai, D. (2009). Imagining Justice in Times of Perpetual War: Notes for the Classroom. Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 6(2), 6-26.
Edelman, M. W. (2007). The Cradle to Prison Pipeline: An American Health Crisis. Preventing Chronic Disease, July; 4(3): A43. Published online 2007.
Fehr, D. E. (2006). How to Draw a Heart: Teaching Art to Incarcerated Youth. The Journal of Social Theory in Art Education, 26, 258-07.
Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. NY: Pantheon.
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury.
Kim, C, Losen, D. & Hewitt, D. (2010). The School-to-Prison Pipeline: Structuring Legal Reform. New York: NYU Press.
Meiners, E. (2007). Right to Be Hostile: Schools, Prisons, and the Making of Public Enemies. New York: Routledge.
Mullen, C. A. (1999). Reaching inside out: arts-based educational programming for incarcerated women. Studies in Art Education, 40 (2) 143-61.
Noguera, P. A. (2008). Schools, prisons, and social implications of punishment: Rethinking disciplinary practices. In P. A. Noguera (Ed.), The Trouble with Black Boys…and Other Reflections on Race, Equity, and the Future of Public Education (pp. 111-130). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Noguera, P. (2003). Schools, prisons, and social implications of punishment: Rethinking disciplinary practices. Theory Into Practice, 42(4) Autumn.
Raible, J. & Irizarry, J. G. (2010). Redirecting the teacher's gaze: Teacher education, youth surveillance and the school-to-prison pipeline, Teaching and Teacher Education doi:10.1016/j.tate.2010.02.006
Rios, V. (2011). Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys (New Perspectives in Crime, Deviance, and Law). New York: New York University Press.
Sherman, F. & Jacobs, F. (Eds.). (2011). Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice. Hoboken: Wiley.
Vaught, S. (2010). Juvenile prison schooling, and re-entry: Disciplining young men of Color. In F. Sherman & F. Jacobs (Eds.) Health and well-being in the juvenile justice system. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Venable, B. B. (2005). At-Risk and In-Need: Reaching Juvenile Offenders Through Art. Art Education, 58,(4), 48-53.
Wald, J. & Thurau, L. (2010). Taking School Safety Too Far? The Ill-Defined Role Police Play in Schools. Education Week, 29, (22), pp. 24-26.
Wald, J. & Losen, D. (2003). Defining and Redirecting the School-to-Prison Pipeline. In Wald, Johanna and Losen, Daniel J. (Eds.) Deconstructing the School to Prison Pipeline, New Directions for Youth Development. Theory, Practice, Research No. 99, Fall 2003.
Williams, R., & Taylor, J. (2004). Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women. Art Education, (57) 2, 46-52.
Resources for activist research to disrupt and dismantle the School-to-Prison Pipeline
In Illinois: Juvenile Justice Initiative http://www.jjustice.org/
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation launched an initiative to help states become models of juvenile justice reform. "Models for Change: Systems Reform in Juvenile Justice" is an effort to create successful and replicable models of juvenile justice system reform through targeted investments in four key states: Illinois, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. The initiative seeks to accelerate progress towards a more rational, fair, effective, and developmentally appropriate juvenile justice system. The Juvenile Justice Initiative is proud to participate in the Models for Change initiative.
Advancement Project http://www.advancementproject.org/
We are an innovative civil rights law, policy, and communications “action tank” that advances universal opportunity and a just democracy for those left behind in America. We believe that sustainable progress can be made when multiple tools—law, policy analysis, strategic communications, technology, and research— are coordinated with grassroots movements. Advancement Project was founded in 1999 in Los Angeles and Washington DC by veteran civil rights lawyers who were looking for new ways to dismantle structural barriers to inclusion, secure racial equity, and expand opportunity for all.
Annie E. Casey Foundation http://www.aecf.org/
The Annie E. Casey Foundation Juvenile Detention Alternatives
The Annie E. Casey Foundation is a private charitable organization, dedicated to helping build better futures for disadvantaged children in the United States. The primary mission of the Foundation is to foster public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports that more effectively meet the needs of today’s vulnerable children and families. In pursuit of this goal, the Foundation makes grants that help states, cities and neighborhoods fashion more innovative, cost-effective responses to these needs.
American Civil Liberties Union
The ACLU is our nation's guardian of liberty, working daily in courts, legislatures and communities to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
Be sure to "play" the ACLU's school-to-prison-pipeline game http://www.aclu.org/school-prison-pipeline-game
The Civil Rights Project at UCLA http://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/
The mission of the Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles is to help renew the civil rights movement by bridging the worlds of ideas and action, to be a preeminent source of intellectual capital within that movement, and to deepen the understanding of the issues that must be resolved to achieve racial and ethnic equity as society moves through the great transformation of the 21st century.
Children’s Defense Fund http://www.childrensdefense.org/
The Children's Defense Fund (CDF) is a non-profit child advocacy organization that has worked relentlessly for over 35 years to ensure a level playing field for all children. We champion policies and programs that lift children out of poverty; protect them from abuse and neglect; and ensure their access to health care, quality education and a moral and spiritual foundation. Supported by foundation and corporate grants and individual donations, CDF advocates nationwide on behalf of children to ensure children are always a priority.